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Local Agreements

This is a summary of all agreements mentioned throughout the SoP. The following agreements are in effect at all times.

EDDF

  • Go Arounds as published
  • Standard SIDs (designated in the Quicksheet) do not have to be coordinated. Other SIDs should be avoided if possible.

Note: In case there is a slow aircraft on a SID APP has to be warned before the aicraft is cleared for take off.

  • Every Aircraft from the north is cleared for the N transition. Every Aircraft from the south is cleared for the S transition. If different STARs/Transitions are needed, they have to be coordinated
  • For handoff levels see Quicksheet
  • On handoff from CTR to APP aircraft are released for turns when entering via KERAX, RAMOB, SPESA. These aircraft are not released for climb/descend as long as they are inside CTR airspace. Aircraft via ROLIS are NOT released for turns or climb/descend.

Delivery

Delivery
Stationen
Frankfurt Delivery
EDDF_DEL FC 121.900

General Procedures

Frankfurt Delivery is responsible for IFR clearances and startup clearances. For all IFR departures Frankfurt Delivery is the first station to call. Furthermore Frankfurt Delivery has to ensure that pilots have filed their RFL according to the odd/even rule specified in the Quicksheet. The plugin "Flightplan Checker" that is included in the starter package can be used for this task.

The startup clearance can be given if there is no more than 20 minutes delay to expect. The IFR clearance can be given whenever the filed flight plan has been edited by Delivery. The IFR clearance must include the Standard Instrument Departure (1.2 SID assignment) and the squawk. Normally startup and IFR clearance are combined in one call.

When IFR and startup clearance are given, Delivery transfers the aircraft to the next responsible station (depends on the staffed stations, often it is EDDF_C_GND). A voice transfer is needed. If startup clearance cannot be given immediately, the pilot should be told to stay on Delivery frequency. Wait until you can give startup clearance and initiate the transfer to Apron thereafter. Let the pilot know about the expected startup time, if more than 10 minutes startup delay occurs. This procedure is often necessary during slot events or any events with heavy outbound traffic.

SID Assignment

For a quick overview the Quicksheet for EDDF includes all assignment rules.

The Quicksheet includes all useful SIDs outbound EDDF, with the ones for standard operation set in bold font. For deviation from these rules, coordination with Frankfurt Tower and with the responsible Langen Radar (usually EDDF_N_APP) is required. Be advised that non-standard SIDs can create dependencies to other arrivals and departures as explained below. Departures in brackets can be cleared when filed or requested by a pilot.

Especially during high workload for APP/CTR standard SIDs have to be used when applicable. If necessary the pilot's filed route has to be amended by EDDF_DEL or the controller responsible for EDDF_DEL.

Apron/Ground

Apron/Ground
Stationen
Frankfurt Apron
EDDF_W_GND FW 121.750
EDDF_C_GND FC 121.850
EDDF_E_GND FE 121.950
EDDF_S_GND FS 121.650
Frankfurt Ground
EDDF_GND FG 121.800

Ground Sectors

Ground in Frankfurt can be divided into the following sectors:

  • Frankfurt Center Apron: EDDF_C_GND (Callsign: Frankfurt Apron)
  • Frankfurt East Apron: EDDF_E_GND (Callsign: Frankfurt Apron)
  • Frankfurt West Apron: EDDF_W_GND (Callsign: Frankfurt Apron)
  • Frankfurt South Apron: EDDF_S_GND (Callsign: Frankfurt Apron) - not yet existing in real life
  • Frankfurt Ground: EDDF_GND (Callsign: Frankfurt Ground)

If more than one of these positions is staffed, Delivery must be staffed, too. If just one Apron is staffed, this Apron takes over all other Aprons, but not the Frankfurt Ground sector.

Frankfurt Center Apron is the first Apron to be staffed, followed by Frankfurt East Apron.

  • If Frankfurt Ground is not staffed, his sector will be taken over by Frankfurt Tower or any station above. If only Frankfurt Apron is online (and no station above), Ground sector will be a Unicom sector. So Frankfurt Ground cannot be taken over by any Apron position.

Note: Frankfurt Ground is nearly never staffed.

  • If EDDF_S_GND is not staffed, his sector will be taken over by EDDF_E_GND.
  • If EDDF_W_GND is not staffed, his sector will be taken over by EDDF_C_GND.
  • If EDDF_E_GND is not staffed, his sector will be taken over by EDDF_C_GND.


Transfers

If a taxi route of an aircraft goes through more than one Ground/Tower sector, the taxi instruction must include a clearance limit. The responsible station must instruct a pilot to hold short of it. The taxiways to be used for these hold short instrcutions are as follows:

  • EDDF_S_GND to EDDF_TWR/EDDF_GND: ROMEO (aircraft via SIERRA 16/23)
  • EDDF_E_GND to EDDF_TWR/EDDF_GND: UNIFORM (aircraft to taxi via UNIFORM, SIERRA and/or ROMEO to holding point runway 18)
  • EDDF_N_TWR/EDDF_W_TWR to EDDF_C_GND: NOVEMBER 11 (aircraft via PAPA)
  • EDDF_C_TWR/EDDF_TWR to EDDF_W/C/E_GND: LIMA (aircraft landed on 25L/25C/07R/07C)
  • EDDF_N_TWR/EDDF_W_TWR to EDDF_W_GND: NOVEMBER 19 (aircraft via PAPA 1)
  • EDDF_GND/EDDF_TWR to EDDF_S_GND: SIERRA 4/5/6/7/8/9/10/11/16/21/23 (aircraft taxiing to a stand located on the south apron)

07 Operations

  • EDDF_W_GND to EDDF_C_GND: NOVEMBER 11
  • EDDF_C_GND to EDDF_W_GND: NOVEMBER 10
  • EDDF_C_GND to EDDF_W_GND: LIMA (aircraft coming from PAPA and NOVEMBER 11)
  • EDDF_C_GND to EDDF_E_GND: NOVEMBER 4
  • EDDF_E_GND to EDDF_C_GND: NOVEMBER 5

25 Operations

  • EDDF_W_GND to EDDF_C_GND: NOVEMBER 8
  • EDDF_C_GND to EDDF_W_GND: NOVEMBER 10
  • EDDF_C_GND to EDDF_E_GND: NOVEMBER 4
  • EDDF_E_GND to EDDF_C_GND: NOVEMBER 5

Note: The sectors including its borders are correctly displayed when using the correct Euroscope sector and ese file.

An Apron must not give instructions regarding another sector without coordination. All stations shall initiate the transfer early enough in order that the pilot does not have to stop. Transfers must not be initiated if there is a chance for a conflict.

Note: EDDF_E_GND: “DLH133, taxi via NOVEMBER 3, NOVEMBER, hold short of NOVEMBER 5.” Thereafter initiate the transfer to EDDF_W_GND. Do NOT give instructions like:” DLH133, taxi holding point runway 18 via…” if the instruction includes taxiways within the next sector.

Map

EDDF Map - 07 in use
EDDF Map - 25 in use


Gate Assignment

Frankfurt has two Terminals. Terminal 1 includes ALPHA, BRAVO and CHARLIE gates. Terminal 2 includes ECHO and DELTA gates. In addition, Frankfurt has two cargo areas. SIERRA stands are part of the southern cargo area while FOXTROT stands are part of the northern cargo area.

As a general rule of thumb ALPHA gates are mainly used for DLH, AUA, TAP, AEE, SWR and UAL (Schengen and Non-Schengen area). Gates A50 to Gates A69 are DLH only and should be used for A330 or bigger. BRAVO and CHARLIE gates are used for Star Alliance flights outside the Schengen area. Terminal 2 is mostly used for non-Star Alliance members and low cost operators, that are also located at the V-Positions in front of Terminal 2. Additionally low cost operators can be assigned to GOLF stands in the South.

In practice gates are assigned by the ground radar plugin. If a pilot requests a specific terminal, gate or stand, he shall get. If the requested terminal, gate or stand is not available, any other gate or stand close to the requested one should be offered. Be aware that some aircraft types are NOT able for jetways! These aircraft types can deal with gates as well (without using the jetways), but stands shall be preferred for them.

General Procedures

The airport Frankfurt has a quite complex ground layout. The following procedures are standard procedures that should make it easier to avoid conflicts and to provide an efficient traffic flow.

All runways at Frankfurt Airport can be used under low visibility conditions. If low visibility procedures are in use, CAT2/3 holding points must be used.

Taxiway LIMA 9 must not be used. NOVEMBER 7 cannot be used for A380/B747. NOVEMBER 7 and NOVEMBER 8 shall not be used within the same taxi instruction to avoid confusion.

07 operations

  • Taxiway NOVEMBER should be used for traffic taxiing eastbound; Taxiway LIMA should be used for traffic taxiing westbound.
  • Holdings points to use for runway 07C: L21/20/19/17/16
  • Do not use other holding points without coordination with Frankfurt Tower.
  • Taxiways/crossings used as connection of MIKE and LIMA: (M24),(M10),M8, M6, TANGO
  • For pushbacks from gates B28/23/42/48/47 coordination between EDDF_C_GND and EDDF_E_GND is required.

Note: Taxiways in brackets mean that these taxiways are not used in real life (for reasons that do not apply with the simplified VATSIM procedures) but can be used on VATSIM to reduce taxi time.

25 operations

  • Taxiway NOVEMBER should be used for traffic taxiing westbound, Taxiway LIMA should be used for traffic taxing eastbound.
  • Holdings points to use for runway 25C: L1/3/4/6
  • Do not use other holding points without coordination with Frankfurt Tower.
  • Taxiways/crossings used as connection of MIKE and LIMA: YANKEE, M30, (M28), (M24), M8, TANGO

Note: Taxiways in brackets mean that these taxiways are not used in real life (for reasons that do not apply with the simplified VATSIM procedures) but can be used on VATSIM to reduce taxi time.

  • Apron shall use different holding points to make it possible (for Tower) to change the departure sequence in order to be as efficient as possible
    • All HEAVY aircraft shall use intersections LIMA 1/3/20/21 for runway 07C/25C.
  • All MEDIUM and LIGHT aircraft departing via runway 18 and parking at Terminal 2 or any stand in front of it shall be asked whether they are able for departure out of intersection SIERRA. If they are, they shall taxi to hold short of UNIFORM. Frankfurt Tower is responsible for further taxi instructions. Frankfurt Tower will instruct them to taxi to holding point runway 18 via UNIFORM, SIERRA, SIERRA 11, ROMEO, SIERRA 25 and SIERRA.
  • UNIFORM shall be used for traffic taxing southbound.
  • TANGO shall be used for traffic taxiing northbound.
    • Do not use TANGO for traffic taxiing southbound without coordination with Tower
  • Apron shall use intersections NOVEMBER, NOVEMBER south and LIMA for traffic departing via runway 18 (except all traffic departing via intersection SIERRA).
  • Deicing pads shall be used on request of the pilot only.

Taxiways NOVEMBER orange, NOVEMBER blue, NOVEMBER 7 blue, NOVEMBER 7 orange shall not be used because most pilots just do not find them or do not even have them in their scenery. The same procedure should be applied for Links 1, 3, 4, 5 because these can neither be found on any scenery nor on the charts published by Vatsim Germany.

Tower

Tower
Stationen
Frankfurt Tower
EDDF_TWR FT 119.900
EDDF_W_TWR WT 124.850
EDDF_N_TWR NT 136.500
EDDF_C_TWR CT 118.775

Frankfurt Tower is responsible for all actions on and close to the runways and for all actions in the D_CTR (VFR charts). Moreover, Frankfurt Tower is responsible for the assignment of the landing and takeoff direction.

Tower Sectors

Frankfurt Tower can be divided into five sectors:

  • Frankfurt Tower: EDDF_TWR (Callsign: Frankfurt Tower)
  • Frankfurt West Tower: EDDF_W_TWR (Callsign: Frankfurt Tower)
  • Frankfurt North Tower: EDDF_N_TWR (Callsign: Frankfurt Tower)
  • Frankfurt Center Tower: EDDF_C_TWR (Callsign: Frankfurt Tower)
  • Frankfurt Ground: EDDF_GND (Callsign: Frankfurt Ground)

The responsibilities can be seen here:

EDDF Map - 25 in use. TWR sectors are the same as with 07 operations.

Frankfurt Tower is the main station. Frankfurt West Tower can only be staffed if Frankfurt Tower has already been staffed before. In addition, Frankfurt North Tower and thereafter Frankfurt Center Tower can be staffed. Usually Frankfurt Ground, Frankfurt North Tower and Frankfurt Center Tower are less important compared to an apron split into three aprons (EDDF_W/C/E_GND).

  • If Frankfurt West Tower is not staffed, his sector will be taken over by Frankfurt Tower.
  • If Frankfurt North Tower is not staffed, his sector will be taken over by Frankfurt West Tower.
  • If Frankfurt Center Tower is not staffed, his sector will be taken over by Frankfurt Tower.
  • If Frankfurt Ground is not staffed, his sector will be taken over by Frankfurt Tower.

The Ground sector can be taken over by Frankfurt West Tower after coordination, too. However it cannot be taken over by any Frankfurt Apron.

If multiple Frankfurt Towers are staffed, the responsibility for VFR traffic in the control zone can be coordinated for every single VFR-flight or in general. Without coordination, Frankfurt Tower (EDDF_TWR) is responsible for VFR traffic.

Transfers

All taxi instructions must include a clearance limit. The following clearance limits shall be used for the following transfers - The responsible station must instruct a pilot to hold short of it:

  • EDDF_N/W_TWR to EDDF_W/C_GND: NOVEMBER 11 (aircraft via PAPA)
  • EDDF_(C_)TWR to EDDF_W/C/E_GND: LIMA (aircraft landed on 25L/25C/07R/07C)
  • EDDF_N/W_TWR to EDDF_W_GND: NOVEMBER 19 (aircraft via PAPA 1)
  • EDDF_E_GND to EDDF_TWR/EDDF_GND: ROMEO (aircraft via SIARRA 16/23)
  • EDDF_E_GND to EDDF_GND/EDDF_TWR: UNIFORM (aircraft to taxi via UNIFORM to holding point runway 18)
  • EDDF_W/C/E_GND to EDDF_(W_)TWR: Holding point runway 18/25C/07C
  • EDDF_GND/EDDF_TWR to EDDF_S_GND: SIERRA 4/5/6/7/8/9/10/11/16/21/23 (aircraft taxiing to a stand located on the south apron)
  • All transfers should be initiated early enough in order that the pilots do not have to stop.
  • Aircraft, which are holding short of UNIFORM for departure out of runway 18, shall be instructed to taxi to holding point runway 18 via UNIFORM, SIERRA, SIERRA 11, ROMEO and SIERRA.

In addition, there are some more procedures for all transfers:

  • Taxiway UNIFORM shall be used southbound. Do not use it northbound without coordination with the responsible Frankfurt Apron.
  • Taxiway TANGO shall be used northbound
  • All aircraft landed on runway 25L/07R shall use taxiway MIKE to reduce the distance to taxi on apron
  • Taxiway M14 must not be used.

07 Operations

  • Do not use MIKE 30 or MIKE 28 for crossings of runway 07C.
  • The following taxiways may be used to connect MIKE with LIMA (and to cross runway 07C): (M24), M8, M6, TANGO
  • Taxiway TANGO shall be used for all arrivals taxiing to Terminal 2 or stands V94-V118
  • All other intersections mentioned above should be used on the controller's discretion to reduce taxi distance and time on the apron frequencies.

Taxiways in brackets mean that these taxiways are not used in real life (for reasons that do not apply with the simplified VATSIM procedures) but can be used on VATSIM to reduce taxi time.

25 Operations

  • Do not use MIKE 6 or MIKE 10 for crossings of runway 25C.
  • The following taxiways may be used to connect MIKE with LIMA (and to cross runway 25C): YANKEE, M30, (M28), (M24), M8, TANGO
  • Taxiway TANGO shall be used for all arrivals taxiing to Terminal 2 or stands V94-V118
  • Taxiway YANKEE shall be used for all stands West of N14
  • All other intersections mentioned above should be used on the controller's discretion to reduce taxi distance and time on the apron frequencies.

Note: Taxiways in brackets mean that these taxiways are not used in real life (for reasons that do not apply with the simplified VATSIM procedures) but can be used on VATSIM to reduce taxi time.

Taxiway PAPA 1 shall only be used for aircraft that will park at any of the following stands:

  • F231-F235
  • V251-V270

All other arriving aircraft landed on runway 25R/07L shall use taxiway PAPA to taxi to a gate or stand.

All aircraft departing out of Frankfurt must be instructed to contact the appropriate Langen Radar frequency. This instruction shall be given when the aircraft is airborne and when there is no potential for a conflict regarding this aircraft. The transfer shall be initiated early enough to avoid that the pilot must level off. If no Radar is staffed, the next frequency is UNICOM. If in doubt about the correct frequency, coordination is required.

If Frankfurt Departure (EDDF_D_APP) is staffed, all departures shall contact EDDF_D_APP after departure. For special events, Frankfurt Departure might be split in North Departure (D_APP) and South Departure (H_APP). In this case, the same rules apply as for N_APP and S_APP. All departures inbound OBOKA, MARUN and TOBAK shall contact D_APP, all other shall contact H_APP.

If EDDF_N_APP and EDDF_S_APP are staffed (and no EDDF_D_APP):

  • all departures inbound OBOKA, MARUN and TOBAK shall contact EDDF_N_APP after departure.
  • all departures inbound ANEKI, CINDY, KOMIB, SOBRA, SULUS and ULKIG shall contact EDDF_S_APP after departure.

All departures with a non-standard SID or a radar vectored departure must be coordinated with the responsible Langen Radar. Missed approaches are generally transferred to the appropriate approach controller (not to departure!): EDDF_N_APP for missed approach procedures north of the field (e.g. published missed approach procedures out of RWY 25C, 25R, 07L, 07C), EDDF_S_APP – if staffed – for procedures south of the field (i.e. published procedures out of RWY 25L, 07R).

General Procedures

First of all: Every aircraft movement not mentioned in this chapter (3.2) is independent to all departures or arrivals as long as it is not obviously dangerous.

  • Stop bars UNIFORM 2/4/6/8, TANGO 2/4/6/8, YANKEE 2/4/6/10/12 and SIERRA 40 can be used to avoid conflicts with arriving aircraft.
  • There must not be traffic on TANGO between TANGO 2 and 4 when there is traffic on final runway 25C with an active landing clearance or when there is a departure on 07C.
  • There must not be traffic whose tail is higher than the one of an A321/B739 on UNIFORM between UNIFORM 2 and 4 when there is traffic on final runway 25C with an active landing clearance (precision approach only!).
    • If the arriving traffic on runway 25C with an active landing clearance is flying a non-precision-approach (e.g. visual swingover), there must not be any traffic on UNIFORM between UNIFORM 2 and 4.
  • There must not be any traffic on TANGO between TANGO 6 and 8 when there is traffic on final runway 25L with an active landing clearence or when there is a departure on 07R.
  • There must not be traffic whose tail is higher than this one of an A321/B739 on UNIFORM between UNIFORM 6 and 8 when there is traffic on final runway 25L with an active landing clearance (precision approach only!).
    • If the arriving traffic for runway 25L with an active landing clearance is flying a non-precision-approach, there must not be any traffic on UNIFORM between UNIFORM 6 and 8.
  • There must not be any traffic on taxiway YANKEE between YANKEE 4/10 and YANKEE 2, if there is an active landing clearance for runway 07C or if there is a departure on 25C.
  • There must not be any traffic on taxiway YANKEE between YANKEE 6/12 and SIERRA 40, if there is an active landing clearance for runway 07R or if there is a departure on 25L
  • Cleared conflicts between arriving traffic and taxiing traffic have to be avoided.

Note: It is not recommended to use these stop bars because many pilots do not find them. You should rather use instructions like “Hold short of TANGO” instead of instructions like “Hold short of TANGO 4”.

  • Taxiway PAPA shall only be used for aircraft which landed on runway 25R/07L.
    • Taxiway PAPA 1 shall be used for cargo aircraft only.
  • It is possible to perform two independent line ups on any runway as long as these aircraft are separated by 600m (0.32NM). Otherwise the instruction "line up behind" or "line up in sequence shall be used".
  • It must be coordinated with Langen Radar whether parallel independent or staggered mode will be used (see chapter 3.2.2).
  • Missed approaches as published and precision approaches (ILS) are a permanent agreement between Langen Radar and Frankfurt Tower. Every deviation of this agreement has to be coordinated.
  • Procedures for VFR traffic:
    • D_CTR goes up to 1500ft ASL. For details see VFR charts.
    • Departures out of runway 25L/25C can be instructed to not overfly runway 18. Nevertheless it is necessary to wait with an 18 takeoff clearance until the VFR departure turns away from runway 18.
    • NOVEMBER and LIMA route shall be used for VFR traffic to enter the control zone.
    • NOVEMBER, LIMA, SIERRA (out of runway 18 only) and ROMEO 1 (out of runway 18 only) route shall be used for VFR traffic to leave the control zone.
    • There are VFR holdings in the control zone north and south of the airport. Traffic in these holdings shall be instructed to stay clear of runway 18/final runway 25R.
    • Runway 25R/07L shall not be used for VFR traffic except on request of the pilot.
    • VFR traffic can separate itself to all other VFR and IFR traffic (so parallel approaches to IFR arrivals are allowed even if staggered operations are in use). Nevertheless in many situations traffic information or instructions to orbit etc. are mandatory.

Note: Runway 25L/07R shall be used for arriving traffic to park on the south apron inclding GAT.

  • In older sceneries taxiway TANGO is ROMEO-east and UNIFORM is SIERRA-east.
  • Use intersections L4/L5/M8 on request only (both directions)!

Usage of runways

Frankfurt Airport has four runways. Three runways are parallel to each other (25L/07R, 25C/07C, 25R/07L).

Frankfurt Tower defines which landing and takeoff direction is active. It can be 07 or 25. Runway 18 is almost always active. However, it must be closed when the tailwind component on it exceeds 15 knots. If the tailwind component on runway 18 is greater than 10 knots, Frankfurt Delivery must ask the pilot whether he is able to depart out of runway 18 anyway (this can be done using the ATIS). If not, runway 25C/07C must be used. If a pilot must not or does not want to use runway 18 due to tailwinds, coordination with TWR/APP may be needed. See the Quicksheet for the SIDs to use in this case. During the simultanious usage of 07C/25C and 18 for south departures TWR has to ensure that within 2 minutes before and after each south departure out of 07C/07R/25C/25L (excluding SULUS out of 07) there is no departure out of runway 18. This means that if there is a south departure on 07C, TWR has to wait 2 minutes before releasing another south departure via runway 18. It may be more efficient to close runway 18 in this case depending on the amount of pilots that report unable due to tailwind.

Note: Strong winds from north are rare.

Landing and takeoff direction 25 shall be preferred. However, runways 07 must be active if the tailwind component on runways 25 exceeds 5 knots.

Note: Be aware that wind is never constant. If the tailwind component is just a little below 5 knots, you should probably use runways 07 because the 5 knots tailwind could be exceeded easily.

You should also know that Frankfurt can handle more traffic if runways 07 are active.

There must not be opposite operations in Frankfurt. Opposite operations mean that takeoff and landing direction are not the same. This is strictly forbidden in Frankfurt!

Runway 25R/07L Northwest was introduced in October 2011. This runway is 2800 meters long. Runway Northwest is approved for landings only. There must not be departures out of runway 25R/07L. Other than in real life visual approaches for runway 25R/07L are allowed but shall only be used if a pilot does not get the ILS. The following aircraft types are not allowed to land at runway 25R/07L: A388, all B747 models, AN225, MD11.

Runway 18 must not be used for landing traffic. About 60% of all departures depart out of runway 18. Runway 36 does not exist.

Runway 25C/07C can be used for landings and takeoffs but it is used primarily for departures. Langen Radar will not use runway 25C/07C for landings without coordination (runway 25C/07C shall only be used for landings after a visual swingover – no full ILS approaches for runway 25C/07C if possible). All aircraft coming from the north apron and departing on a SID with designator ECHO, DELTA, MIKE, FOXTROT or GOLF shall use runway 25C/07C for departure. In addition, runway 25C (normally not 07C, see 3.2.2.3) can be used for so called swingovers (see chapter 3.2.2).

Runway 25L/07R can be used for landings and takeoffs but it is used primarily for landings. Only aircraft coming from the southern apron (especially VFR traffic departing southbound) can (controller’s decision) use this runway for takeoffs (SID with designator ECHO, DELTA, HOTEL, FOXTROT or GOLF). In order to taxi to a stand or gate runway 25L/07R should be vacated to the north.

Note: You do not have to tell the pilots to vacate to the north. Just tell them if you want them to vacate southbound (“vacate left/right”). Vacating southbound only makes sense if the aircraft shall taxi to the GAT or to Cargo City South.

Note: Runway 25L/07R shall be used for arriving traffic to park on the south apron inclding GAT.

Dependencies between runways

The four runways in Frankfurt cannot be used independently. The dependencies depend on the active landing and takeoff direction.

It must be coordinated with Langen Radar whether staggered or parallel independent mode is in use. If staggered mode is in use, minimum separation between one aircraft on final runway 25L/07R/25C/07C and another aircraft on final runway 25R/07L is 3NM. If parallel independent mode is in use, runways 25C/07C/25L/07R are independent from runway 25R/07L. Runway 25C/07C is not independent from runway 25L/07R though!

Minimum separation between two aircraft approaching the same runway is always 3NM or wake turbulence separation, whichever is higher (exception see 3.2.2.2).

Langen Radar is responsible for separation between arrivals until touchdown. Nevertheless, Frankfurt Tower should intervene (e.g. with the instruction for a go around) if any separation minima are undercut. In this case, after before or after intervening coordination with the responsible radar station is strongly recommended.

All landing and takeoff clearances shall be given as early as possible.

Visual swingovers

Visual swingover means the procedure that one aircraft is approaching a runway but for example on 6NM final it visually switches to another parallel runway.

Before initiating a swingover Frankfurt Tower has to make sure that the approaching pilot has the runway, he shall switch to, in sight.

The following swingovers are possible:

  • 07C → 07R (for safety reasons only!)
  • 07R → 07C (for safety reasons only!)
  • 25L → 25C
  • 25C → 25L

All visual swingovers shall not be initiated further afar than 7 NM away from the threshold.

Visual swingovers are independent to approaches on runway 25R/07L!

Visual swingovers do not have to be coordinated with Langen Radar as long as separation to other aircraft is obviously great enough.

In case of a missed approach of an aircraft which has performed a visual swingover, the pilot must be instructed to climb to 5000ft on runway track. Ideally, this should already happen when giving clearance for the swingover, so that the pilot can brief the missed approach, e.g. by "In case of missed approach climb 5000ft on runway heading".

Note: Phraseology for swingovers: TWR: “DLH123, confirm able for visual swingover runway 25C?” Pilot: “Affirm!” TWR: “In case of missed approach climb 5000ft on runway heading, cleared visual approach runway 25C.”

If there is a missed approach out of runway 25R/07L (flying missed approach as published) at the same time, visual separation shall be used. If visual separation is not possible, Frankfurt Tower shall solve the situation with vectors (one aircraft has to fly a heading which leads 30 degrees away from the other one). The responsible Langen Radar (normally EDDF_N_APP) has to be informed about the heading.

Note: Visual swingovers can make sense:

  • to reduce separation minima described in 3.2.2.4
  • for safety reasons (e.g. to avoid missed approaches)
  • to reduce separation minima according to 3.2.2.2
  • to reduce taxi time on ground
  • If runways 07 are active, visual swingovers are allowed for safety reasons only (see above).


Reduced minimum radar separation

Quote from AIP Germany/AD 2 EDDF 1-34 (by the German Luftfahrt-Bundesamt), applicable on VATSIM, too:

  • 2 Reduced radar separation minima on parallel runway systems (Based on NfL I-55/11)
    • 2.1 During approaches to the parallel runway system 07C/07R and 25C/25L at Frankfurt/Main Airport, a radar separation minimum of 2.5 NM applies on final approach between 10 NM and touchdown, provided the following conditions are met:
      • a) The preceding aircraft has the same or a lower weight category. Aircraft of weight category SUPER, HEAVY and the B757 as preceding aircraft are excluded from this procedure.
      • b) The exit taxiways of the runway can be observed from the control tower visually or by means of surface movement radar.
      • c) The runway is dry.
    • 2.2 The reduced radar separation minimum may also be applied between staggered approaches to the parallel runways. In these cases, neither the line of sight of the exit taxiways (2.1b) nor the runway conditions (2.1c) need to be considered as a precondition.

Note: Langen Radar should not use separation less than 3NM on purpose. However the use of reduced minimum radar separation on final approach can avoid the need for missed approaches.

Runway Dependencies 07 Operations

  • Takeoff clearances on runways 07C for aircraft flying the DELTA or ECHO SID (only to the north SID) are independent to all other runways (as long as runway 07R is used for landings only).
  • Departing aircraft flying DELTA or ECHO SIDs to the south (including SULUS) on runways 07C have to start their takeoff roll before any aircraft on final runway 07R reaches 2 NM final.
  • Departing aircraft out of runway 07R have to stay clear of aircraft departing or going around on runway 07C.
  • Takeoff clearances on runway 18 can be given provided the following conditions are met:
    • No aircraft on final runway 07R between 4 NM final and runway 18
    • Departing aircraft on runway 18 have to start their takeoff roll before any aircraft on final runway 07R reaches 4 NM final.
    • No aircraft on final runway 07C that will cross runway 18 just overhead the departing aircraft on runway 18
    • Aircraft using intersection SIERRA for runway 18 can depart completely independently to arrivals on runways 07C and 07R.

Runway Dependencies 25 Operations

  • Departures out of runway 25C/25L are independent to arrivals on runway 25R as long as they depart via a MIKE or HOTEL SID.
  • Departures out of runway 25C are independent to arrivals on runway 25L as long as they depart via a FOXTROT or GOLF SID.
  • Takeoff clearances on runway 25C/25L can be given for aircraft departing via a MIKE SID provided the following conditions are met:
    • No aircraft on final runway 25L between 4NM final and touchdown
    • Takeoff roll has to start before any traffic inbound runway 25L reaches 4NM final.
    • An aircraft can be seen as landed when it is displayed with an altitude of 400 feet and when its speed is obviously decreasing.

Note: This rule is only relevant for 25L arrivals, not for 25C arrivals. So a visual swingover from runway 25L to runway 25C could give you more capacity here.

  • Takeoff clearances on runway 25C/25L can be given for aircraft departing via a FOXTROT or GOLF SID provided the following conditions are met:
    • No aircraft between threshold and 5NM final runway 25R
    • Takeoff roll has to start before any traffic inbound runway 25R reaches 5NM final.
    • Departures out of runway 25L have to stay clear of aircraft departing or going around on runway 25C.
  • After the first left turn aircraft departing out of runway 25C/L on a MIKE/HOTEL SID could cause conflicts (separation less than 3NM/1000ft) with aircraft on initial climb departing out of runway 18. This conflict must not occur. To avoid this potential conflict no takeoff roll on runway 18 should begin when there is an aircraft during takeoff roll on runway 25C/25L which is going to depart on a MIKE/HOTEL SID.
  • In addition, takeoff clearances on runway 18 have to be timed to avoid the following conflict:
    • Missed approach or departure out of runway 25L/25C crosses runway 18 just overhead an aircraft departing out of runway 18.
    • When there is an active takeoff clearance on runway 18, it has to be clear that this conflict does not occur.

To say it in easy words: It must be clear that there cannot be a collision or a near miss between a go around on runway 25L/25C and a departure on runway 18.

    • Departures and missed approaches out of runway 25C are independent as long as they are able to cross runway 18 at 500ft AGL or higher. This means that only heavy long-haul aircraft out of runway 25C and all departures and missed approaches out of runway 25L could eventually cause conflicts with departures out of runway 18.
    • Departures on runway 18 out of intersection SIERRA are independent to all departures and arrivals on any other runway. The dependency between departures out of runway 18 and the MIKE/HOTEL SID (departures out of runway 25C/25L) has to be kept in mind anyway (see above).


Departure Intervals

All departures must be separated by at least 3NM (basic runway separation can be applied) or wake turbulence separation, whichever is greater. If Langen Radar needs more separation, he must coordinate this with Frankfurt Tower.

Departures with the same exit point (e.g. OBOKA) must be treated differently: The succeeding aircraft must not receive takeoff clearence before the preceeding aircraft is 5NM away (measured between the aircraft airborne and the aircraft standing on ground). If no radar screen is used, 2 minutes separation can be used as well. If the preceding aircraft is on a F/G-departure and the succeeding aircraft is on a M/H-departure – or the other way around (!), this procedure shall not be applied and basic runway separation shall be applied instead.

Approach

Approach
Stationen
Langen Radar
EDDF_N_APP FN 120.800
EDDF_S_APP FS 125.350
EDDF_D_APP FD 120.150
EDDF_H_APP FH 136.125
Frankfurt Director
EDDF_U_APP FU 118.500
EDDF_F_APP FF 127.270

Airspace structure

Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA)

This chart shows the complete TMA of Frankfurt Approach. It also includes airspace GOLF which cannot be controlled. The MRVA charts can be found in publicly available charts (e.g. EAD). The airspace classes can be found at the "DFS AIS portal – VFRebulletin".

Subsectors

The following abbreviations are used in this document:

DFDN – Departure North DFDS – Departure South DFAN – Arrival North (North Pickup) DFAS – Arrival South (South Pickup)

The following rules apply: If only one Departure controller is online, he takes over the other Departure sector.

If no Departure controller is online, Arrival North takes over Departure North and Arrival South takes over Departure South. If only one Arrival controller is online, he takes over the other Arrival sector.

The Directors (Feeder controller) do not have their own sectors. They are assistants of the Arrival controllers which is why Director North has the same sector as Arrival North and Director South has the same sector as Arrival South. If only one Director is online, he is the Director for both Arrival controllers.

This chart shows all Approach sectors in 07 configuration.
This chart shows all Approach sectors in 25 configuration.


Approach Procedures

Final Approach

The standard approach procedure is the ILS approach. Visual approaches can always be used if a pilot cannot fly the ILS for any reason. In this case the visual approach does not change any dependencies according to chapter 6. All other final approach procedures (e.g. VOR-DME approach) shall only be used on pilot’s request and after coordination with all relevant station (esp. Director and Tower). In high traffic situations other approach procedures are not recommended.

The following ILS approaches shall be used by default:

Runway ILS Approach
07L ILS-Y or ILS-Z (see below)
07C ILS
07R ILS-Z
25L ILS
25C ILS
25R ILS-Y or ILS-Z (see below)

For runways 25R/07L the ILS-Z approach has a 3°-glide slope and the ILS-Y has a 3,2° glide slope. The ILS-Z can always be used. The ILS-Y approach must not be used given at least one of the following conditions is met:

  • Tailwind component greater than zero
  • CAT2 or CAT3 operations (visibility)

If none of these conditions are met, for as-real-as-it-gets purposes the ILS-Y can be used. The ILS approach mentioned in the ATIS must be the same as the ILS approach that is used. This means that coordination with the Tower controller may be necessary.

For all runways the full approach name must be used in phraseology. E.g. “expect ILS ZULU runway 25R”.

Intercepting below 4000ft should be avoided due to noise abatement. If a pilot misses his intercept and overshoots it is recommended to turn the pilot back onto the ILS and descend below 4000ft.

General Procedures

STARs are only used in case of communications failure or in case of a planned RNAV-Y approach. Important exception: RNAV STARs from EMPAX, ASPAT, and PETIX. From SPESA on, these STARs are equivalent to the SPESA SIERRA Transition. If “Transition” is used in this document, these RNAV STARs are included as SPESA SIERRA (South) Transitions. In very low traffic situations RNAV-Y approaches should be used in the evening. In this case the appropriate STAR (ending at the IAF of the RNAV-Y approach) shall be used which requires a coordination with the responsible Center controller prior to the hand over because the STAR clearance must be given by Center (Approach usually establishes communication with the pilot too late for a change regarding the Transition or STAR).

As the clearance limits are outside of the TMA, the appropriate Center controller issues the clearance for any STAR or Transition and initiates the hand over some time before sector entry (e.g. 15NM before). Transitions are the standard way to lead an arriving aircraft onto the final and the center controller shall instruct all pilots to follow a transition if no other coordination has been made. Transitions in Frankfurt are so called “Transitions to final approach”. Radar vectoring may be used if it does not make sense to let an arrival fly the whole transition. Radar vectoring shall start at the TMA entry earliest. Note: It is no problem at all to use radar vectors from TMA entry on, even if the center controller cleared the arriving aircraft for a transition. In low traffic situations the approach controller can use radar vectoring from the TMA entry on or he can coordinate shortcuts with the center controller into his sector.

Available RNAV-STARs and Transitions:

  • 07 operations: (SPESA07N), SPESA07S, KERAX07N, KERAX07S, UNOKO07N, UNOKO07S, ROLIS07N, ROLIS07S, ASPATxE, EMPAXxE, PETIXxE
  • 25 operations: (SPESA25N), SPESA25S, KERAX25N, KERAX25S, UNOKO25N, UNOKO25S, ROLIS25N, ROLIS25S, ASPATxW, EMPAXxW, PETIXxW

Note: Usually it does not make sense to apply SPESA North-Transitions.

The departure sectors shall be respected. This means that arriving aircraft shall stay above or laterally separated to the respective departure airspace (DFDN/DFDS) in order to always keep space for departing aircraft. This also applies when there is no departure controller online and departing aircraft are handled by an Arrival controller.

This chart shows some possible combinations of transition usage and radar vectoring during 07 operations.
This chart shows some possible combinations of transitions usage and radar vectoring during 25 operations.


As the Tower controller must respect dependencies between departing and arriving aircraft, the following special separation minima should ideally be met. As long as chapter 6 is respected it is no problem to sometimes ignore the minima below, but depending on the amount of outbound traffic, it may be important for the overall efficiency of the runway system that these minima are met in e.g. 50% or 75% or the cases. Coordination may be required.

The minima on touchdown (so when the preceding aircraft touches the ground) are as follows:

  • 07R arrivals: 3NM, target shall be 6NM
  • 07L arrivals: 3NM
  • 25L arrivals: 4NM minimum, target shall be 6NM
  • 25R arrivals: 5NM

Note: Wake Turbulence Separation has to be applied if necessary

Missed Approaches

The tower controller instructs all missed approaches to follow the missed approach as published if no other procedure is coordinated. It is strongly recommended to stick to the missed approach as published and not to coordinate anything different because otherwise the dependencies between the runways are more complicated than explained in the TWR SOP.

A recommended way of vectoring a missed approach back onto the downwind (applies to 25 operations, too). It is not recommended to use headings like 160 or 340 for vectoring back onto the downwind. Of course, flying the whole missed approach procedure into the holding is possible, too - but given that not all pilots know how to fly the procedure, it makes sense to apply radar vectoring as soon as the pilot calls in again on the Approach frequency.


Departure Procedures

Departing aircraft shall be kept below arriving traffic on the transitions. This es very relevant for ECHO, DELTA, and MIKE/HOTEL/WHISKEY SIDs but shall be respected for all other departure routes as well. If there is traffic on the transition that could potentially cause a conflict with departing traffic, the departing traffic shall be instructed to climb to FL70 and the arriving traffic must not descend below FL80. In other words: The Departure and Arrival sectors shall be respected. If Departure and Arrival stations are staffed, it can be coordinated that the Departure controller is allowed to violate the Arrival sector if and only if there it no arriving traffic that could possibly cause a conflict.

If the Arrival controller takes over the respective Departure sector, in general it is possible to let a departure climb above an arriving aircraft. The procedure to apply is the following:

  1. Let the arriving aircraft descend to FL x (usually FL80)
  2. Let the departing aircraft climb to FL x-10 (usually FL70)
  3. When the climbing departure is about to reach their cleared level, it can be decided that letting the departure climb above FL80 is safe. Thus further climb can be instructed (e.g. to FL130).

Departing aircraft shall be handed over to the appropriate Center controller on the following flight levels to the following station:

SID Hand-over level Next controller
ANEKI/SOBRA/ULKIG/CINDY/SULUS (out of 18) FL110 RG EDFF (usually HEF)
MARUN/TOBAK/SULUS (out of 07) FL130 RG EDFF (usually HEF)
OBOKA FL130 RG EDLL (usually PADH)
if EDLL offline, coordinate with EDFF Center controller

Levels below the mentioned level may be used for hand overs for separation purposes (see below).

All departing aircraft shall be handed over to the appropriate Center controller as early as possible but not before it is clear that they are well separated to all other relevant traffic. Especially departing aircraft with the same sector exit (same first waypoint on the route system) or even the same route for some time shall be separated by 10NM laterally if possible. Otherwise additional vertical separation shall be applied (e.g. handing over the one in front on FL130 and the one behind on FL 120). It should be avoided to have multiple aircraft behind each other on the same route with less than 10NM lateral separation. If this cannot be avoided using vectors and/or speed control, the departure intervals of the Tower controller are not big enough and appropriate coordination shall be initiated.

Holdings

The following holdings can be used by Frankfurt Approach controllers for any purposes: MTR, CHA, RID, TAU, GED

It is recommended to use these holdings only for special circumstances like runway/airport closure or emergencies.

For traffic management purposes the Center holdings, which are controlled by the Center controller, shall be used: UNOKO, ROLIS, KERAX, SPESA (above FL110). SPESA holding at and below FL110 lays in the TMA. It can be coordinated to delegate aircraft below FL115 in the SPESA holding to the appropriate Center controller.

In case of the need for holdings for traffic management purposes, close coordination between the Center and Approach controllers is of crucial importance. When an aircraft shall leave the holding towards approach, the Center controller shall instruct the pilot to leave the holding, fly the appropriate transition (or continue on the RNAV STAR), and to contact the Arrival controller.

Note: It is very important not to drain out the final. Even if the Approach sector is too busy and traffic management holdings are necessary, usually there is no need to completely close sector entry for more than 5 minutes. After a short closure because of an overload on the Arrival/Director stations, it is recommended to set an aircraft rate per time, e.g. not more than one aircraft per 4 minutes via UNOKO/ROLIS/KERAX and not more than one aircraft per 3 minutes via SPESA. Try to clear the holdings as quickly as possible. Due to the enormous capacity in parallel operations (see next chapter), usually extensive holding usage is not necessary.

Besides the traditional holdings, one can use radar vectoring to vector aircraft along the downwind and final, but without an approach clearance. This way one gets a big holding which is very easy to dissolve. It is recommended to use this procedure when the airport is completely closed. Do not park too many aircraft in this holding structure to make separation easy – the Center holdings can be used for any additional aircraft.

Modes of Operation

The runways system can be used in two different ways. This chapter explains these two different modes of operation. In both systems the main landing runways are 07R/25L and 07L/25R. Runway 07C/25C can be used as well (especially via visual swing-overs; see TWR SOP). In parallel operations, runway 07C/25C shall not be used by the Approach controllers and it shall not be used by the Tower controller for visual swing-overs two times right behind each other (swing-overs during 07 operations are only allowed for safety reasons anyways – see TWR SOP). If these rules are followed, visual swing-overs do not affect the following dependencies or independencies in any way.

Note: Staggered operations are much easier to use but it does not have as much traffic capacity as parallel operations do. Usually staggered operations are used on VATSIM. Especially during bigger events parallel operations may be the best way of handling the traffic.

Parallel independent

Definition

Arriving aircraft on runway 07L/25R are independent to arriving aircraft on runway 07R/25L as soon as they are established on the localizer.

Rules for controllers
  1. The first Arrival controller to be contacted (not Director!) by the pilot assigns the runway. After the runway assignment hand-overs from one Arrival controller to another Arrival controller are necessary if the aircraft leaves one Arrival sector and enters another Arrival sector.
  2. The pilot is handed over from the appropriate Arrival controller to the appropriate Director controller no later than 10NM before the expected turn onto final (in many cases an earlier hand-over makes sense). Regardless of the current position or downwind of the pilot the appropriate Director controller is
    1. Director North for runway 07L/25R arrivals
    2. Director South for runway 07R/25L arrivals
  3. Before hand-over from the Arrival to the Director controller, the aircraft must be instructed to descend to the intercept altitude (5000ft for 07L/25R, 4000ft for 07R/25L) whenever possible (this is strongly preferred!). If this is not possible, FL60/altitude 6000ft or higher shall be used. Often it makes sense to instruct all pilots to maintain 220 KIAS before the handover to the Director controller.
  4. The localizer or ILS clearance cannot be issued before the aircraft has reached the ILS intercept altitude.
  5. If an aircraft is following the downwind part of a transition or if an aircraft is following radar vectors that are similar to the downwind part of a transition, the aircraft cannot be turned away from the downwind toward final before it has reached the intercept altitude.
  6. The Center controllers can be instructed to clear all aircraft that must not or cannot land on runway 07L/25R for the SIERRA Transition (especially B74x, A388, MD11, A225). DFAN/DFAS can use radar vectoring to transfer arrivals from one downwind to another (e.g. see figures 4 and 5).
  7. Approach controllers can block nearly all departure capacities by applying parallel operations. The Tower controller may need space for departures which needs to be respected.

Note: Often it makes sense to have all arrivals for the South runway on the southern downwind. This can be achieved by vectoring aircraft to the respective downwind even if they were following the other Transition. In most cases this would not even be necessary because usually arrivals on the North-Transition can land on the North runway and arrivals on the South-Transition can land on the South runway. In order to achieve this, one can coordinate with the center controller to send all SPESA-arrivals and all aircraft which cannot land on the North runway onto the South-Transition, all other arrivals shall be sent onto the North-Transition. However, this is not always possible or necessary so it is also possible to send an aircraft on the northern downwind to the Director South and accordingly to the southern runway (or the other way around). In this case it is even more important that procedures 4 and 5 above are followed to avoid conflicts between aircraft on different frequencies!

Procedures for controllers
  • During this mode of operation aircraft have to be able to fly 1NM straight and level before intercepting the LOC and 2NM straight and level before intercepting the GS (See ICAO DOC 4444).
  • The Non-Transgression-Zone (NTZ) provided with the local Euroscope files defines a zone which must not be violated by approaching traffic. According to the ICAO definition, upon violation of the NTZ by one of the approaching aircraft, the aircraft in the adjacent approach must be instructed to perform a Go Around. It is not sufficient to instruct a Go Around for the aircraft violating the NTZ.
  • The intercept of aircraft on the southern runway has to be performed with an intercept angle that allows the aircraft to pass directly underneath the Final Approach Fix (or further away from the airflied) of the northern runway if they miss the LOC. An explanatory screenshot will follow
Staffing

Possible staffing configurations (no others are possible!):

  1. DFDN, DFAN, DFFS (recommended if not more controllers are available but there is too much traffic for staggered operations. Otherwise use staffing option 4 or use staggered operations.)
  2. DFAN, DFAS, DFFS (DFDN, DFDS) (not recommended!)
  3. DFAN, DFFS, DFFN (DFDN, DFDS) (usually not recommended!)
  4. DFAN, DFAS, DFFN, DFFS, (DFDN, DFDS) (recommended!)

DFFN – Director North DFFS – Director South

Stations in brackets mean that additionally one or more of these stations can be staffed.

If just one Director is staffed, he takes over the other Director.

DFAS and DFAN, DFFN and DFFS as well as DFDN and DFDS can be interchanged if one of the frequencies is preferred due to neighbor station.

Note: In real life parallel operations can only be used with two Director controllers. On VATSIM parallel operations with only one director is possible if necessary, but unrealistic and not recommended. With two directors, only parallel operations are possible.

Staggered

Definition

All arriving aircraft must maintain radar separation.

The following part of the real-world AIP can be applied:

  • 2. Reduced radar separation minima on parallel runway systems (Based on NfL I55/11)
    • 2.1 During approaches to the parallel runway system 07C/07R and 25C/25L at Frankfurt/Main Airport, a radar separation minimum of 2.5 NM applies on final approach between 10 NM and touchdown, provided the following conditions are met:
      • a) The preceding aircraft has the same or a lower weight category. Aircraft of weight category SUPER, HEAVY and the B757 as preceding aircraft are excluded from this procedure.
      • b) The exit taxiways of the runway can be observed from the control tower visually or by means of surface movement radar.
      • c) The runway is dry.
    • 2.2 The reduced radar separation minimum may also be applied between staggered approaches to the parallel runways. In these cases, neither the line of sight of the exit taxiways (2.1b) nor the runway conditions (2.1c) need to be considered as a precondition.

Note: This real-world AIP procedure is not of big relevance on VATSIM. It should not be the goal to apply this procedure, but the reduced separation minima may be used on VATSIM to prevent the need of a go around if the separation between to arriving aircraft on the runways 07C/07R/25C/25L becomes less than 3NM.

Procedures for controllers
  1. The Director controller assigns the runway. He should do so on the initial contact to the pilot or very soon thereafter.
  2. The pilot is handed over from the appropriate Arrival controller to the Director controller no later than 10NM before the expected turn onto final (in many cases an earlier hand-over makes sense)
Staffing

Possible staffing configurations (no others are possible!):

  1. DFAN, (DFFS, DFDN, DFDS)
  2. DFAN, DFAS, DFFS, (DFDN, DFDS) (not recommended!)

Stations in brackets mean that additionally one or more of these stations can be staffed.

DFAS and DFAN, DFFN and DFFS as well as DFDN and DFDS can be interchanged if one of the frequencies is preferred due to neighbor station.

Important Minor Airports within the TMA

Egelsbach

Egelsbach (EDFE) is an uncontrolled airfield within the Frankfurt TMA. If not defined differently in this document, Egelsbach is handled the same way as any other uncontrolled airfield. If no EDFE_I_TWR is online, it is handled by DFAS if this controller has the VATSIM AFIS licence. Egelsbach airport can be delegated to Frankfurt Tower if this controller has the AFIS licence. If no Approach controller and no Tower controller has the AFIC licence, Egelsbach airport cannot be covered with AFIS service.

Although EDFE is an uncontrolled airfield, a big ratio of the traffic is business traffic. This traffic is usually IFR but must depart or land VFR in Egelsbach. Standard procedures for IFR pickup or IFR cancellation apply. It is recommended to execute IFR cancellations southeast of EDDF at 4000ft or below. It is also recommended to instruct pilots inbound Egelsbach to leave airspace CHARLIE to below as soon as IFR is cancelled.

Wiesbaden

Wiesbaden IFR arrivals and departures must be separated to all other IFR traffic by radar separation. Especially Frankfurt arrivals on downwind or final approach must be separated to Wiesbaden inbounds on final approach. For details about Wiesbaden procedures, see charts and training documents regarding military procedures.

Coordination

Before any session the following coordination must be made:

With Tower: Runways in use (TWR decision), current ATIS information (TWR decision), mode of operation (APP decision)

With Center: Transitions to use (APP decision), holdings usage (only if necessary – APP and CTR responsibility but APP decision)

All hand overs are carried out as silent handovers as long as the relevant LOAs or additional agreements do not define a different procedure.

Center

Lower Center
Stationen
Langen Radar
EDGG_E_CTR GE 127.725
EDGG_Z_CTR GZ 120.570
EDGG_R_CTR GR 124.475
EDGG_CTR GC 135.72

The first station to be occupied on CTR is Hersfeld (EDGG_E_CTR). The exact overview over the sector and sector splits can be found here.

LoA with neighboring FIRs

Inbounds to EBBR have to reach Fl250 at DEVRU before being transfered to the CTR responsible of EDLL.

Note: For inbounds to ELLX EDGG_E_CTR has to clear STARs according to the LoA document. In general the STAR that has to be cleared is the first entry in Euroscope.

The Graphical LoA is used to visualize the LoAs and is no substitude for the written from. Aircraft transfered from CTR to EDDF_APP oder EDDS_APP are released for turns but not for climb/descend.

LoA with EDDF

With EDDF_APP the transfer level according to the Quicksheet should be used. Generally CTR clears all aircraft via SPESA for the South-Transition and all aircraft via KERAX/UNOKO for the North-Transitions. Clearing other STARs/Transitions is possible but has to be coordinated.

LoA with EDDS

EDDS_APP clears the used Transitions/STARs himself. The transfer level is published in the Quicksheet. When using the CDA Transitions EDDS_APP has to coordiinate directs and the used Transition with CTR. On handoff from CTR to APP aircraft are released for turns but not for climb/descend as long as they are inside CTR airspace.

Potential Conflicts at SPESA

Most traffic to EDDF will enter via SPESA. Therefor SPESA holds the most conflict potential in the entire airspace.

The main problem is that at SPESA traffic from EDMM and LSAS has to be merged. Additionally CINDY and SULUS departures pass within 7NM to SPESA. Traffic from EDMM should be told to reach FL110 at SPESA which leaves conflict potential with SPESA inbounds from the south.

In case of an EMPAX arrival from the south the instruction: "descend via EMPAX3W/EMPAX3E FL100" should be used. In this case the pilot will descend to reach FL100 at ADNIS. This prevents potential conflicts with CINDY/SULUS departures, aswell as conflicts over SPESA between traffic from EDMM and from LSAS

EMPAX3E for SWR107N, CINDY1S for LDM677

In case of an arrival from the south via SPESA (see next picture) the instruction "descend to reach FL100 at SPESA" does not avoid the cleared conflict between SPESA arrivals since the arrival from the south can still be above Fl100 when within 3NM of a SPESA arrival at FL110.

SPESA07S for BER34E, CINDY1S for LDM677

In the case of this picture BER34E descending to reach FL100 is at about FL135 when crossing the CINDY departure LDM677. Therefor every CINDY departure unknown to the CTR controler is a cleared conflict with SPESA arrivals from the south.

Due to this issue arrivals from the south are to be told to reach FL100 at one waypoint before SPESA like in this case: "BER34E descend to reach FL100 at SUPIX". This procedure prevents cleared conflicts between CINDY/SULUS departures and SPESA arrivals from the south and is to be preferred to any other descend instruction.